Saturday, May 23, 2020
What do wasps do? What good could a wasp possibly be? When most people think about wasps, they think about being stung. Indeed, wasps do sting, and wasp stings hurt. To make matters worse, some wasps can be downright nuisancesÃ¢â¬âthey build nests under our eaves or in our lawns and swarm around our guests at backyard barbecues. If this has been your experience with wasps, youre probably wondering if we need these pests at all. So what do wasps do, and are wasps useful? 1:26 Watch Now: Wasps Do Surprisingly Cool Things Some Benefits of Wasps Paper wasps, hornets, and yellowjackets all belong to the same familyÃ¢â¬âthe VespidaeÃ¢â¬âand they all provide extraordinarily important ecological services. Specifically, they help us through pollination, predation, and parasitism. Put simply, without wasps, we would be overrun with insect pests, and we would have no figsÃ¢â¬âand no Fig Newtons. Hornets and paper wasps prey on other insects and help keep pest insect populations under control. For instance, paper wasps carry caterpillars and leaf beetle larvae back to their nests to feed their growing young. Hornets provision their nests with all manner of live insects to sate the appetites of their developing larvae. It takes a lot of bugs to feed a hungry brood, and its through these needs that both hornets and paper wasps provide vital pest control services. Yellowjackets dont get quite as much credit for being beneficial, although they should. Yellowjackets mostly scavenge dead insects to feed their offspring, meaning they prevent the bodies from piling upÃ¢â¬âlike a cleaning service. Unfortunately, their scavenging habits and love of sugar puts them in close proximity to people, which almost never ends well for the yellowjacket or the person. Wasps and Yeast Researchers at the University of Florence recently discovered another important role of both hornets and paper wasps: They carry yeast cells in their guts. Yeast is an essential ingredient in making bread, beer, and wine, but we know very little about how yeast lives in the wild. The researchers found that wasps and hornets feed on late-season grapes, which are rich in wild yeast. The yeast survives the winter in the stomachs of hibernating queen wasps and is passed on to their offspring when they regurgitate food for their young. The new generation of wasps then carries the yeast back to the next seasons grapes. So raise your glass to the wasps and hornets! New Zealand Eradication Program In some cases, however, the costs of waspsÃ¢â¬âparticularly for invasive speciesÃ¢â¬âfar outweigh the benefits. In 2015, the Department of Conservation and Ministry for Primary Industries in New Zealand looked into the economic costs of the invasive species of German wasps (Vespula germanica) and common wasps (V. vulgaris) across industries, society, and the natural environment. They found that wasps cost the country NZ$75 million each year and projected a total cost of NZ$772 million between 2015 and 2050; 80% of this is associated with wasp predation on honeybees and its impacts on pollination. Wasps kill bees and their larvae for protein, rob hives of honey, and consume 50% of the available honeydew, a food source for bees. The same year, the Department of Conservation ran a pilot program on five public conservation land sites, testing a government-backed wasp bait called VespexÃ¢â¬âthey found a reduction of more than 95% of waspÃ activity. In early 2018, the New Zealand government began distributing information on how to set up wasp bait traps. Sources Celebrating WildflowersÃ¢â¬âPollinatorsÃ¢â¬âWasp Pollination. US Forest Service. Web. June 9, 2018.Crenshaw, W.S. Nuisance Wasps and Bees. Colorado State University Extension. December, 2012. Web. June 9, 2018.MacIntyre, Peter, and John Hellstrom. An Evaluation of the Costs of Pest Wasps (Vespula Species) in New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand Department of Conservation and Ministry for Primary Industries, 2015. Print.Mussen, E.C., and M.K. Rust. Pest Notes: Yellow and Other Social Wasps. Davis: UC Statewide IPM Program, University of California, 2012. Print.Schmidt, Justin O. Wasps. Encyclopedia of Insects. Ed. Resh, Vincent H. and Ring T. Carde. Academic Press, 2009. Print. Towns, David, Keith Broome, and Allan Saunders. Ecological Restoration on New Zealand Islands: A History of Shifting Scales and Paradigms. Australian Island Arks: Conservation. Eds. Moro, Dorian, Derek Ball and Sally Bryant. Christchurch: Csiro Publishing, 2018. 206-20. Print.and OpportunitiesManagement , Triplehorn, Charles A. and Norman F. Johnson. Wasps. Borror and DeLongs Introduction to the Study of Insects. Cengage, 2005. Print. Yellowjackets, Hornets, and Paper Wasps, Utah State University Extension, fact sheet ENT-19-07Wasp Control Using Vespex. Department of Conservation, 2018. Web. 10 June, 2018.Yong, Ed. You can thank wasps for your bread, beer and wine. Discover Magazine. July 30, 2012. Web. June 9, 2018.
Monday, May 18, 2020
Known for: propaganda written to support the American Revolution Occupation: writer, playwright, poet, historianDates: September 14 O.S., 1728 (September 25) - October 19, 1844Also known as Mercy Otis, Marcia (pseudonym) Background, Family: Mother: Mary AllyneFather: James Otis, Sr., a lawyer, merchant, and politicianSiblings: three siblings, including older brother James Otis Jr., a figure in the American Revolution Marriage, Children: husband: James Warren (married November 14, 1754; political leader)children: five sons Mercy Otis Warren Biography: Mercy Otis was born in Barnstable in Massachusetts, then a colony of England, in 1728. Her father was an attorney and merchant who also played an active role in the political life of the colony. Mercy was, as was usual for girls then, not given any formal education. She was taught to read and write. Her older brother James had a tutor who permitted Mercy to sit in on some sessions; the tutor also permitted Mercy to use his library. In 1754, Mercy Otis married James Warren, and they had five sons. They lived most of their marriage in Plymouth, Massachusetts. James Warren, like Mercys brother James Otis Jr., was involved in the growing resistance to British rule of the colony. James Otis Jr. actively opposed the Stamp Act and the Writs of Assistance, and he wrote the famous line, Taxation without representation is tyranny. Mercy Otis Warren was in the middle of the revolutionary culture and counted as friends or acquaintances many if not most of the Massachusetts leaders -- and some who were from farther away. Propaganda Playwright In 1772, a meeting at the Warren house initiated the Committees of Correspondence, and Mercy Otis Warren was most likely part of that discussion. She continued her involvement that year by publishing in a Massachusetts periodical in two parts a play she called The Adulateur: A Tragedy. This drama depicted Massachusetts colonial governor Thomas Hutchinson as hoping to smile to see my country bleed. The next year, the play was published as a pamphlet. Also in 1773, Mercy Otis Warren first published another play, The Defeat, followed in 1775 by another, The Group. In 1776, a farcical play, The Blockheads; or, The Affrighted Officers was published anonymously; this play is usually thought to be by Mercy Otis Warren, as is another anonymously published play, The Motley Assembly, which appeared in 1779. By this time, Mercys satire was directed more at Americans than at the British. The plays were part of the propaganda campaign that helped solidify opposition to the British. During the war, James Warren served for a time as paymaster of George Washingtons revolutionary army. Mercy also carried out an extensive correspondence with her friends, among whom were John and Abigail Adams and Samuel Adams. Other frequent correspondents included Thomas Jefferson. With Abigail Adams, Mercy Otis Warren contended that women taxpayers should be represented in the new nations government. After the Revolution In 1781, the British defeated, the Warrens purchased the home formerly owned by Mercys one-time target, Gov. Thomas Hutchinson. They lived there in Milton, Massachusetts, for about ten years, before returning to Plymouth. Mercy Otis Warren was among those who opposed the new Constitution as it was being proposed, and in 1788 wrote about her opposition in Observations on the New Constitution. She believed that it would favor aristocratic over democratic government. In 1790, Warren published a collection of her writings as Poems, Dramatic and Miscellaneous. This included two tragedies, The Sack of Rome and The Ladies of Castile. While highly conventional in style, these plays were critical of American aristocratic tendencies which Warren feared were gaining in strength, and also explored expanded roles for women on public issues. In 1805, Mercy Otis Warren published what had occupied her for some time: she titled the three-volumes the History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution. In this history, she documented from her perspective what had led up to the revolution, how it had progressed, and how it had ended. She included many anecdotes about participants she knew personally. Her history viewed favorably Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, and Sam Adams. It was, however, fairly negative about others, including Alexander Hamilton and her friend, John Adams. President Jefferson ordered copies of the history for himself and for his cabinet. The Adams Feud About John Adams, she wrote in her History, his passions and prejudices were sometimes too strong for his sagacity and judgment. She intimated that John Adams had become pro-monarchy and ambitious. She lost the friendship of both John and Abigail Adams as a result. John Adams sent her a letter on April 11, 1807, expressing his disagreement, and this was followed by three months of exchanging letters, with the correspondence growing more and more contentious. Mercy Otis Warren wrote about Adams letters that they were so marked with passion, absurdity, and inconsistency as to appear more like the ravings of a maniac than the cool critique of genius and science. A mutual friend, Eldridge Gerry, managed to reconcile the two by 1812, about 5 years after Adams first letter to Warren. Adams, not fully mollified, wrote to Gerry that one of his lessons was History is not the Province of the Ladies. Death and Legacy Mercy Otis Warren died not long after this feud ended, in the fall of 1814. Her history, especially because of the feud with Adams, has been largely ignored. In 2002, Mercy Otis Warren was inducted into the National Womens Hall of Fame.
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Before we can explain why the film is titled breaking the Taboo, we must first grasp the connotation that comes with the word taboo. In a noun interpretation we see taboo as a social custom prohibiting discussion of a particular practice (drugs) or forbidding association with a particular person (drug user), place (drug influenced locations), and thing (drugs). In a verb definition we see taboo as something that has been placed under prohibition. Now that we have a better understanding of what taboo means, we can see that there is a major taboo associated with drugs. Drug use/ abuse have become a private matter which results in an increase in individuals becoming addicted. Many of these individuals are alone in their addiction due to this isolation that comes with such a stigma. In the United States we pride ourselves on strict regulating laws that prohibit drugs, but these actions have only led to United States becoming the largest consumer of drugs. The United States consist of less than 5 % of the population and 25% of the world population in jail reside in the United States alone. In 1970 the United States had 330,000 prisoners. In 2012 however, it was documented that they had 2.3 million prisoners. The United States has gotten to an extent where we have more prisoners rather than soldiers. This is a hard statistic to read because such a vast amount of individuals are being separated from civilization, for some, decades at a time where change has accelerated theirShow MoreRelatedSanctions And The Level Of Sanctions886 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestraditional societies there are certain concepts that we deem as inappropriate or negative. These things we negatively sanction and the level of sanction is dependent upon the different level of violation. These guiding rules are called folkways, mores, taboo, and sometimes laws. These serve as guiding paths for which people attempt to follow. Each of these are sanctioned in different ways and are commonly expected to be followed. One important thing to remember is that many things are found to be basedRead MoreTaboos and Rituals1615 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessport of baseball as a means of portraying different aspects of culture. The three aspects of baseball that are discussed are rituals, taboos, and fetishes. All three of these baseball traditions or superstitions can be directly related to specific aspects of culture. There are religious, social, and political ties to all three. In examining the rituals, taboos, and fetishes of baseball, cultural ties can be made and one can begin to understand the complex nature of society as it relates to theRead MoreThe Social Impacts of Marijuana Prohibition in Brazil649 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesmany others. Because its so hard to differentiate an addict and a drug dealer by the amount of marijuana they carry, addicts end up in jail. Now, addiction is considered an illness, and for that reason it should be treated as one. In the movie breaking the taboo with the former Brazilian president Fernando Henrique, prisoners talk about how much drugs are a part of their lives in prison. One of them says Ã¢â¬Å"If you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a drug habit when going in, you leave with a drug habit.Ã¢â¬ If the prohibitionRead MoreIs Bataille s Philosophy Something We Could Realistically Live By? Critically Discuss1278 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesprovides us with the basic components of living but not what we really need and how this excess desire the boy has, needs to be satisfied. Rules and taboos have been created in the process of capitalism encouraging productive activity and focuses on the individuality of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity. Any behaviour that goes against these rules and taboos, like the example of the young boy who wants to be unproductive, is suppressed as a result. This is why there is opposition to activities like Ã¢â¬ËsexualRead MoreThe Is The Best And Worst Kinds Of Law Breaking930 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesresults out of the enthusiasm of wrong doings and going against the appropriate and acceptable behaviours (ibid). Julius (2002) argues that by breaking the law, there is a positive liberation of cultural restrictions we rejoice in, and in that we truly reveal a form of gracefulness. Nonetheless, transgressions can be the best and the worst kinds of law breaking, a work of transgression can be great in the power it holds, yet it could be interpreted as a poor insult at the cost of the artist and hisRead MoreThe Social Construction Of Gender By Judith Lorber950 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespeople do not even notice the way they act because of how socially constructed our Western society is. She shows that society is to blame from depriving people from fulling expressing themselves in the way they see themselves by enforcing the Ã¢â¬Å"sameness tabooÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"The process of gendering and its outcome are legitimated by religion, law, and the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s entire set of value. Ã¢â¬ (Lorber, 1994) SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s values have constructed a two-way pathway of masculinity (males) and femininity (females) that have deniedRead MoreSexual Taboos And Its Effects On Society1107 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe fear associated with sexual taboos was once synonymous with how one would quiver in the presence of a snake. Slowly retreating in dread, every vein in the body flooding with adrenaline and mixed emotions. In the company of the unfamiliar, the coward would turn his or her head and run. On the other hand, the inquisitive and open-minded would study the creature and come to his or her own conclusions. Similar to the questionable snake, the topic of sexual taboos has been disregarded for as longRead MoreSymbolism In Lord Of The Flies824 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages into which he dare not throw. Here, invisible yet strong, was the taboo of the old lifeÃ¢â¬ (62). Unfortunately, as time moves on, they grow increasingly distant from these taboos, and more accepting of the primitive ways of unfiltered human nature. The island acts as a sort of solitary confinement for the boys, forcing them to leave the society they were used to. The boys slowly realize there are no real consequences for breaking the rules, so they start to view the rules as pointless, with the helpRead MoreSocial Norms And Its Effect On Society Essay949 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesclasses and social groups. (Becker) It is important to understand how norms dictate our society because breaking any norms can lead to a negative sanctions Sanctions are punishments or rewards one receive when you either abide by a norm or violate it. (Carl, 54) Different types of norms call for different level of sanctions. There are three different types or levels of norms: folkways, mores, and taboos. Folkways are informal norms when violate have lax consequence. An example is picking your nose inRead MoreLJones Perceptions And Causes Ofpsycho Pathology1634 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesreferred to pathogenic cultura l implications. Notably, cultural beliefs were entrenched in the human mind so much so that breaking any taboo was viewed as gross misconduct warranting mental illness. In this regard, cultural portrayal of mental illness was based on the breaking of a taboo. However, scientific research explains that it is the anxiety that follows the breaking of a taboo that causes the development of a mental disorder. Further, research shows that the kind of culture a mental patient comes
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
After reading Ã¢â¬Å"The Age of TurbulenceÃ¢â¬ by Alan Greenspan, the memoir truly shows the significance of our economy in the United States. Alan Greenspan, who spent eighteen-years as the chairman of the Federal Reserve, showed great efforts to assure that America didn t experience an economic disaster. Ã¢â¬Å"Predicting the economic downturn that became the 1958 recession was my first forecast of the economy as a wholeÃ¢â¬ (47 Greenspan). His mindset was constantly full of ideas that would make the economy more stimulated. Greenspan explains the history he has in government, other economic systems, and world issues that greatly affect the economy. He also made sure the rest of the world would grow in a way to make more opportunities for all. His mainÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The Federal Reserve has many jobs to accomplish such as moderating long term interest rates to increase investment. When the economy is performing strongly, the Feds will raise interest rates in o rder to Ã¢â¬Å"slow downÃ¢â¬ the economy. This may sound like a bad idea, but in reality it must be done to ensure that our economy stays in equilibrium. We do not want our economy doing too well but we do not want it doing too poorly either. When the Feds change the interest rates the banks that borrow money from the Fed get directly affected because the loaning price of the money either lowers or rises in response to the interest rates. On the other hand, when the Fed lowers interest rates, it means the economy is performing poorly. Lowering interest rates makes money more accessible for the banks to borrow. When the Fed tightens, the stock market tends to not perform well. Ã¢â¬Å"While the Fed had no explicit mandate to focus on the stock market, the effects of the run-up in prices seemed to me a legitimate concernÃ¢â¬ (175 Greenspan). To explain, higher interest rates creates a lower demand for stocks, causing stock prices to fall. Lower interest rates creates a higher dem and for stocks, causing stock prices to rise. When the demand for stocks fall, the demand for bonds will increase. Interest rates and bond prices are inversely related. This means that when interest rates rise, the demand for bonds fall. Alan Greenspan had a significant contribution to why our economy is the way it isShow MoreRelatedThe Age Of Turbulence By Alan Greenspan Sheds Light On1596 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Age of Turbulence by Alan Greenspan sheds light on Greenspan s time as the chairman of the Federal Reserve as well as the present and future United States economy. GreenspanÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in public life started with Richard NixonÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign in 1967. He then went on to spend eighteen years serving as the chairman of the Federal Reserve Board for Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush from 1987 to 2006. In his memoir he teaches readers what the Federal ReserveRead MoreLeadership Qualities of Alan Greenspan1508 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction Alan Greenspan spent five terms as chairman of the Federal Reserve. In that time, he helped shape this nation more than many people realize. In this leadership paper, I will be showing his leadership qualities in his early years all the way through today. I will also be showing what his past actions and spoken words have done to change things today even though he is out of the Board of Governors. It is best to start out at the beginning to learn more about this very articulate personRead MoreWashington And Permanent Representations Of The Real Players1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmodern an examination and investigation of monetary issues for this group of onlookers. A moment part of the book that should be called attention to is that it is a journal that is much similar to Alan Greenspan s diary, The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World. In that book Dr. Greenspan not just talked about his years as leader of the Fed and the important strategies and political communications happening while there additionally his life. The peruser learns of his childhood includingRead MoreThe Age of Turbulence1703 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Age of Turbulence The Age of Turbulence, Alan GreenspanÃ¢â¬â¢s classical piece of work, is written both on the basis of his personal life account, as well as a compilation of articles that put across his judgment and forecast of the global economic picture (Greenspan 14). This makes it essentially hard to place it as a textbook and at the same time a memoir of his political and economic life story. In his article, the author makes good use of time and a reflection of his past life experience. TheRead MoreBorder Security Deal Boosts Immigration Bill Prospects Essay2075 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesAlan, G., USA, T. (n.d): Border-security deal boosts immigration bill prospects. usa today. In this article, the author have related how to reinforce the U.S border from the inflow of illegal immigrants from Mexico and regularized those immigrants who already live in U.S .The worries that bill devoted be used to provide more manpower, fencing and technology on the border with Mexico is minimized. The U.S decision makers are divided about illegal immigration issue .One group decides to investRead MoreMacroeconomics Project6761 Words Ã |Ã 28 Pageshigher agency premium leads to reductions in borrowing, investment, and spending, which lead to further contractions in the economy and greater reductions in net worth. It is a vicious cycle. Epilogue of Allan Greenspan, The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World According to Mr. Greenspan, a significant contributor to the current economic downturn was indifference toward risk. The main manifestation of this indifference in the current situation was the subprime mortgage industry. If subprimeRead MoreEssay His 135 Week 9 Final Project3576 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesdespite the turmoil of the Civil Rights Movement, the 1960s were anything but peaceful. The 1960s were especially unique in that so many children had been born in the years after WWII that now, in the 60s, they were becoming of age, thus the 60s are also known as the Age of Youth. Several general trends characterize the era: a vast counterculture and social revolution, typically youth rebelling like never before; increased attention to civil rights, feminism, the Vietnam War and the anti-war movementRead MoreRise and Fall of Lehman Brothers11214 Words Ã |Ã 45 PagesBrothers became an important financial advisor and underwriter for many growing companies and established a number o f long-term relationships that are still active today. Economic expansion accelerated in the 1950s with the dawn of the Electronics Age, and Lehman Brothers arranged start-up financing for companies such as Litton Industries. The Firm also lent its expertise and advisory skills to Burlington Mills, Schenley Industries and American Export Lines. This period was also the beginning ofRead MoreMaster Thesis Topic18078 Words Ã |Ã 73 PagesFinance, 57, 369-403 Master Thesis topic 27: Commercial Real Estate One of the factors shared by all real estate types is that their characteristics are very heterogeneous. It is difficult to compare prices for two office buildings because factors like age, size and maintenance level are very unlikely to be the same whereas identical locations can always be ruled out. It is possible to study the monetary value of heterogeneous property characteristics with the use of so called hedonic regression analysis
string(18) " was one of them\." Q. 1. The potential revenue of the field. We will write a custom essay sample on Zimbabwe or any similar topic only for you Order Now Find the most reliable figure for this, tell where you obtained it and explain why you think it is the most reliable figure that you could obtain. Ans. 1. Zimbabwe started selling diamonds and earned more than ?1 billion by selling diamonds (The Press Association). The soldiers forced people to work harder. They also tortured them and their children with heavily armed force. There is no official estimate for the revenue from selling stones and diamonds in that sector but an unofficial estimated range is showing ?1. billion from that field in Zimbabwe (The Press Association). The eastern alluvial diamond fields of diamond estimated to meet one-forth demand of the total demand of diamond across the world in 2006. They earned high revenue and profit by trading diamonds into several countries, like, Israel, India, Lebanon and Russia. The government of Zimbabwe earned $20 million from the legal sale of diamonds in 2008 (The Press Association). But the important thing is that most of the earned income and revenue of mining diamonds is illegal and it has no governmental or official record. If a Chinese mining company wants to set up a legal partnership with Zimbabwe government then it will achieve great revenue with high profit and growth through mining diamond in Marange which is a newly founded diamond field in Zimbabwe. This particular field of diamond is situated in the eastern field which earned high revenue through diamond mining in Zimbabwe. To expand their trade facilities, they arranged some private planes to bring buyers from foreign countries. Most of the diamond fields in Zimbabwe are illegal and distributing conflicting diamonds to many countries. These illegal mining fields are expecting high profit and thus they forced poor people to work harder under the mechanism of Ã¢â¬ËDig or DieÃ¢â¬â¢ (The Press Association). Poor people are bound to work under the heavily armed security guard in these illegal fields of diamond. According to Abbey Chikane, the Kimberley Process monitor for Zimbabwe, marked the Marange Diamond field in Zimbabwe as a certified diamond field to export conflict-free diamonds to meet the demand of diamond across the world (Mutsaka, Wonacott and Childress, 2010). The human right organization of Zimbabwe is protesting the diamond mining though several illegal diamond fields which are doing illegal activities through killing many poor helpless men, raping women and torturing children to get hard work from them. To solve these problems, the government of Zimbabwe has become very serious to set up legal diamond mines to export conflict-free diamonds. Q. 2. Who controls the Mining Development Corporation? Do they have any existing joint venture partners? Who in the Zimbabwean government will influence decisions regarding the investment? Ans. 2. Diamond exporting and supplying business is currently controlled by the government of Zimbabwe. Though it is controlled by the government, there is a presence of powerful illegal diamond fields in Zimbabwe and these fields are engaged in several illegal and non-ethical activities with the help of the armed police and security guard force of Zimbabwe. The presence of political battle and high rate of corruption in the Zimbabwean economic, political and social atmospheres guided the government to a wrong direction. Being the Zimbabwe monitor of the world diamond control body, Abbey Chikane, also stated that the diamonds are ready for sale in the international market to provide minimum international standard of diamond (Mutsaka, Wonacott and Childress, 2010). According to the investors, the mining of diamond in Marange was conducted through use of virtual slaves under the control of armed soldiers in 2008 (Mutsaka, Wonacott and Childress, 2010). Therefore, this field is not working legally or the government may be not serious about fact of diamond mining in Zimbabwe. The Kimberley Process is an international monitoring body to control conflict-free diamond supply from certified diamond fields under governmental rules and regulations. Mr. Chikane announced that Zimbabwe can start trading the Marange diamonds under proper guidance of the government of Zimbabwe. According to him, the Zimbabwe government has taken several effective steps to regulate legal diamond fields and to remove illegal sources of diamond. The Kimberley Process did not consider the fact of taking steps against governments which violated the rules of the human-rights organization in Zimbabwe in diamond mining. The Kimberley team investigated that the heavily armed security forces killed many people, raped women who were illegally mining in the Marange fields in July, 2008 (Mutsaka, Wonacott and Childress, 2010). But the officials denied these charges against them and the government and they told that the security guards were there to give protection to the governmental part of the Marange diamond fields in Zimbabwe. The Kimberley members restricted sales of diamonds by the Marange diamond fields as they were supplying non-certified stones in the international market with proper certificates. This helped to get certification for the diamond fields in Zimbabwe. It also allowed exporting several other legal diamond fields into the foreign market. ZimbabweÃ¢â¬â¢s government earned $20 million from the legal fields of diamonds in 2008 (The Press Association). There are some political conflicts in Zimbabwe in the issue of diamond exporting and mining from legal and illegal diamond fields of the country. After the election in Zimbabwe in 2008, the situation in Marange diamond field has become very much concern about their effectiveness of the Kimberley Process. A top member of the World Diamond Council, Martin Rapaport reigned from the Kimberley Process to protest against their activity and controlling mechanism of the process. Human rights organizations in Zimbabwe are now become very much concern about the export of diamond in the international market after getting the green signal to restart the sale of diamonds from the Marange diamond fields, where heavily armed soldiers deployed by the President Robert Mugabe have been charged for conducting illegal activities (Peta, 2010). The Zimbabwean government investigated that more than 4 million carats of diamonds were founded from the controversial fields of the Zimbabwean diamond fields. Marange was one of them. You read "Zimbabwe" in category "Papers" The estimated value of the total sale of diamonds will be around $1. 7bn according to the ZimbabweÃ¢â¬â¢s 2010 budget and that will be very much helpful to provide a boost to the economic condition of Zimbabwe (Peta, 2010). Investment from the foreign investors is always encouraged the mining development corporation of Zimbabwe. To meet the international demand of diamond, they are gradually expanding their international business through legal export of conflict-free diamonds of certified diamond fields of Zimbabwe. To increase their revenue, the government of Zimbabwe is very much interested to incorporate many foreign investors across the world. The director of the Centre for Research and Development which is a Zimbabwean human-rights organization was tracking the operations in Marange diamond field in Zimbabwe (Peta, 2010). According to them at the end of 2008, there was no improvement in the condition of the human rights in the Marange diamond field. Mr. Maguwu, the director of the research and development centre, also showed how diamonds from the Marange Diamond field were being smuggled out from Zimbabwe to Mozambique and it became a profitable strategy for the soldiers of Zimbabwe through illegal diamond export to other foreign countries (Peta, 2010). The Zimbabwe government forced the African Consolidated Resources to take back their claims against the government and their officials in the issue of diamond supply and export from the Marange diamond field in Zimbabwe at the end of 2006. The high court of Zimbabwe decided that all diamond mines should hand over their power of illegal diamond export to the central bank of Zimbabwe and those mines could get back their power after resolving the dispute in 2008 (Peta, 2010). Therefore, after the political and social battle in Zimbabwean diamond fields, it has become mandatory to get certified by the government, the diamond research and development centre and also by the human rights organization of Zimbabwe. Game Theory: Q. 3. Game theory is very useful in planning strategy. Your firm, if it decides that it is a good investment, wants to win the rights to develop the mine. Explain how you can use game theory to plot a winning strategy. Ans. 3. If the Chinese firm decides that it will be a good investment and also wants to win the rights to develop the diamond mines in Zimbabwe, then they should follow a strategic plan with game theory application. The firm can invest in the Marange diamond field through legal contract of partnership with the mining company. They should be aware of the fact that there are no illegal activities in the mining field against the human rights organization in Zimbabwe. The government of Zimbabwe should follow ethics of the social and political aspects in the case of diamond mining from different legal fields of diamond. According to the perfect formation of the game of this case of development in the field of diamonds, the most effective and suitable pay-off will be the combination of the investment of the Chinese firm and the investment in the legal fields of certified diamonds in Zimbabwe. The investment of the Chinese firm will be more profitable if the firm can invest into a legal field of diamonds, rather than investment into an illegal field of diamonds. There are some other factors related with social, ethical and legal perspectives of the country in the case of diamond mining. These aspects should be highly concerned by the Chinese company who is very much interested to get with some Zimbabwean mining company through legal partnership contract. The Chinese company can get high revenue and profit if it makes a contract with an illegal company but other social, legal and ethical aspects will not be there. There may be several strategies but only one pay-off will be economically, financially, legally and ethically viable for this case. Pricing Strategies: Q. 4. Explain why the price of diamonds in international markets is so high. Note that a good answer to this question will involve research into the pricing strategies of the firms that sell diamonds as well as the application of basic economic principles. Ans. 4. The price of diamond is very high in the international market. If demand increases for a commodity, the price of that commodity will also increase keeping other factors as unchanged. The demand curve of a commodity is downward slopping in the price of the commodity and the quantity demanded for the commodity framework. Demand Curve of commodity: Price Demand Curve Ã¢â¬ ¢ Quantity Demanded (Source: varian, 2003, pp. 4-6) The price of the commodity and the quantity demanded of the commodity are taken respectively as the vertical and the horizontal line of the diagram. The demand of diamond is gradually increasing in the international market. In the above diagram, according to the basic concept of the demand curve, the demand is dependent on the price of the commodity. Therefore, the price of any commodity should also be dependent on the demand of the commodity. In general, if the demand increases, the price should fall according to the demand curve. But in this case, the price of diamonds is gradually increasing with the increase in the price of the diamonds. The price of the diamonds is very high in the international market to reduce the demand of diamonds in scarcity of diamonds in the global market. The scarcity of diamonds is the main reason for the increasing price of diamonds in the international market. At present, there are few diamond mines from which high quality diamonds can be found. On the other hand, there are few diamond mining companies in the world. Therefore, the competition in these companies is negligible. If a firm with monopoly power in a market increases the price of its commodity, there will be no change in the demand of the commodity. This advantage for the diamond mining companies encourages them to increase the price to achieve high revenue and profit from this business. In the competitive market the firms can not increase the prices of their products because if they increase the price the demand of the product will reduce in those firms and the consumer will prefer to buy from any other firm at lower price of the commodity. There is another important reason for the increment of the price of diamonds in the international market. Most of the exported diamonds are smuggled out from the African diamond fields in different countries. These smugglers have fixed very high price for these diamonds in the foreign market. Though this reason is illegal and not providing any economic theory, it is a very important reason for the high price of diamonds. Ethics: Q. 5. What is the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme? What are the elements of the scheme? Does this investment satisfy these? Why or why not? Ans. 5. Mines Minister of Zimbabwe, Obert Mpofu, stated that more than 90% of the total demand from the international market was achieved by the trade watchdog, the Kimberley Process group in November in 2009 (BBC News, 2009). The armed police force in the diamond mining field killed more than 200 poor people by torturing them at the Marange field of diamonds (The Press Association). The activists wanted to remove these pathetic and illegal activities which were gradually reducing the socio-economic culture of the economy. They also announced to reform the planning and controlling strategies of diamond fields in Zimbabwe and they fixed 2010 as the deadline of this reformation (BBC News, 2009). The Kimberley process is a controlling body under the governmental power in Zimbabwe. With the help of this organization, the government earned a lot revenue and profit but it was not helpful to maintain social, legal and ethical aspects of the economy. To achieve high profit and growth, this organization forced people to work harder in the diamond fields of Marange. The security guards killed many people, raped women and forced children to work continuously in the fields. The Kimberley Process decided to work against the human rights groups of Zimbabwe. Therefore, this process is not concern about the ethics of the organization and they are away from maintaining social responsibilities in Zimbabwe. The government denied these charges against their officials and they are still not very much worried about the fact. The 70-member Kimberley Process group approved a compromise diamond contract at a summit in Namibia in 2009 (BBC News, 2009). To maintain balance in the socio-economic aspects of the economy, an independent monitoring body with independent inspector was established. This organization mainly monitors the diamond mining from the controversial fields. As this process is completely away from maintaining ethics and any other social responsibilities, the investment in this organization will not provide any knowledge of social, economic, legal and ethical responsibilities. This will not be suitable or helpful for the future in a long-run perspective. Q. 6. Do you think that this investment is ethical? Why or why not? Ans. 6. Investment in this organization or process will not be an ethical decision for the Chinese mining company. This process helped to work illegally to achieve high profit in an illegal diamond mining sector. This process is not maintaining any ethics which should be helpful for long-term planning. This process also affects the environmental degradation in Zimbabwe. It is also damaging farming irrigation systems in Zimbabwe (Conflict Blood Diamonds, 2009). If the Chinese mining company wants to observe a sustainable growth and development for a long-term perspective, they should not go for the partnership contract with the Marange Diamond mining fields and should not even go for investing in these illegal unauthorized and non-certified diamond mining fields in Zimbabwe. How to cite Zimbabwe, Papers
QTNÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"If Monitoring and Evaluation is to be useful to managers, donors, participants and citizens, then the work must be honest, objective and fair. Data must be collected accurately and reporting done truthfullyÃ¢â¬ . Monitoring and evaluation serves as an essential tool for ensuring sound management within the lifetime of projects or policies. There are certain activities that must be done to put into consideration the cost, time, feasibility and useful means in relation to identifying the maximum amount of information needed to meet the need of monitoring and evaluation. In essence, there should be comprehensive information that cover the full range of the required inputs, outputs, outcomes and impacts which should focus on the monitoring and evaluation purposes. Essentially the vitalness of monitoring and evaluation will be reflected upon the collection of data and information which are relevant, efficient, effective and sustainable, in relation to the aims and objectives which the stakeholders of the project or policy needed in accordance with their interest. We will write a custom essay sample on Project Management and Evaluation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page For monitoring and evaluation to become valuable to managers, donors, participants and citizens, then the effort must, be straightforward, purposive and reasonable. It is the obligation of those involved in such activities of monitoring and evaluation to make sure that the data are collected accurately and that reporting is undertaken truthfully. The essay focus on discussing monitoring and evaluation work which constitutes honesty, objectivity, and fairness in relation to how useful it can be to managers, donors, participants and citizens. Also too, the collection of accurate data and undertaking truthful reporting which could be essentially important to undertake necessary adjustment within the lifetime of projects. Initially, it will base discussion on the usefulness of carrying out honest work of monitoring and evaluation and the significance it stresses, in relation to managers, donors, participants and the citizens. Moreover, it discusses the vitalness of undertaking the work which reflects the objectives. Furthermore, the usefulness of carrying out fair work, and finally, it focus on the essence of accurate data collection and undertaking truthful reporting on feedbacks of projects or policies. To start of with, monitoring and evaluation focus on searching for answers about development interventions that can be done at different times in the life cycle of the project, therefore any necessary requirements should be undertaken carefully. The work involves gathering, analysing, interpreting and reporting information on project performances. For instance, the work of monitoring and evaluation are important to such extent as providing the stakeholders with better means for learning from past experiences, improving service delivery, planning and allocating resources and demonstrating results as part of accountability to key stakeholders. Managers, donors, participants and citizens each perform certain distinctive roles and interests in which they emphasise on various perspectives in response to the work of monitoring and evaluation. The work of monitoring and evaluation can be essentially vital for managers who oversee implementation, donors and other decision makers who influence or decide the course of action related to the project. The citizens whose situations the project seeks to change and participants who implement actions of the project (Wobiro, A. 2002; p47). For monitoring and evaluation to be advantageous, then the work must be honest, objective and fair, and so there should be precise data collection and reporting to be carried out truthfully in such a way it will be significant to concerned audiences. The work of monitoring and evaluation should be honest to ensure honesty and integrity in having respect to the safekeeping, dignity and self-worth of respondents to surveys, the project participants, citizens and other stakeholders they interconnect with. Knowing that a lot may be at stake for a project, it is not surprising that some people may try to influence the way information is presented or the recommendations that are made. Wobiro, A. (2004:p79), argues thatÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"While most of those carrying out the work of monitoring and evaluation would easily recognise bribe (and reject it), though it is not always easy to recognise more subtle forms of influenceÃ¢â¬ . It is the responsibility of those who undertake the work of monitoring and evaluation to ensure that data on project performances are appropriately being collected and that the reporting is done truthfully to provide information to outside audience. For instance, different audience need different information on what concerns them in relation to the project performances, even when addressing the same issues. To paraphrase Kellogg Foundation (2002:p97), the distribution of honest information about the project to outside audiences can be vital as it does serve many purposes. The managers can indulge on improving the effective means on the functioning of related projects and organisation, providing an accounting purposes to donors and the regulatory bodies, convincing diverse audiences of the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s importance, and generating further support for the projects being implemented. A monitoring and evaluation work that sits on someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s shelf will not lead to develop project design and management. Therefore, carrying out honest monitoring and evaluation work can be effective as it does provide usable information that the project staff and other stakeholders can utilize directly to make decisions about the project. Moreover, for the work of monitoring and evaluation is to be proved useful to the responsible bodies, then it must reflect its objectives. Monitoring and evaluation that is to be usable must essentially being centred on the questions concerning the progress of the project under investigation, thus its objectives must be stated clearly as to reflect the information which the key stakeholders need to acquire. The performance based monitoring and evaluation concerns the assessment, as organized and objective as potential of intentional, enduring, or accomplished project. For example, the work is intended to define that whether the project still relevant to the problem, being considered efficient, effectively undertaken, impact, and sustainability of the project so as to incorporate lessons learned into the decision making process by the managers and other important decision makers. The work of monitoring and evaluation in essence provides worthwhile responses to managers, donors, participants and the citizens as it informs decisions on operations or activities that are related to ongoing or future project intervention. According to Rossi and Freeman, (1989:p45)Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"The work is for management and administrative purposes, to assess the appropriateness of program changes, to identify ways to improve the service delivery of interventions or to meet the accountability requirements for funding groupsÃ¢â¬ . With the essence of the work being objectively undertaken, the project management and administration will have to, in their day to day conduct their undertakings as competently as possible. The managers and supervisors, who have reputations for wasting funds, improperly using staff resources, and in other ways being efficient, regularly endanger not only their own positions but the futures of their projects. The systematic response of objective work of monitoring and evaluation will serve as a influential tools that enables project managers to document the functioning efficiency of organisation, for easing the ways staff are employed, for requesting for the project support and, and for defending the performance of the project compared to those undertaken by the other organisations is the same social program sector. Similarly, project donors and the other stakeholders have need of evidence that what was paid for and considered necessary was actually undertaken concern over the lack of accountability of projects, particular public project continues to intensify . For instance, the objective work could be essentially vital to stakeholders as it can cater to empower corporate learning and contribute to the body of knowledge on what works, what does not and why, therefore there can be informed decisions on operations or strategy related to ongoing or future project intervention. The participants, with regards to the information needed, will be concerned with the impact or outcome of the project implementation to consider effective strategies to carry out the activities of monitoring and evaluation effectively and efficiently. The monitoring and evaluation work will pursue to measure project sound effects in relative to its specified goals, whether and to what degree the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s inputs and services are improving the quality of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. It provides information on the changes in the behaviour and conditions of targeted communities and individuals (Rossi and Freeman, 1992; p26) by assessing the effectiveness of the project in attaining its originally stated intermediate and overall objectives. Though the project monitoring and evaluation undoubtedly aids the interests of the funders, project managers, staff, and the beneficiaries, all of whom benefit from a process that advances project actions, each of these groups might resist an impact evaluation out of concern that the result might be negative. For instance, the funders might have to admit to mistakes in judgment; project managers and staff might consider their jobs threatened; beneficiaries, if they are receiving food or other goods or services may fear their loss. Overpowering such resistance to monitoring and evaluation is not always possible, but experience suggests that resistance can be reduced if the stakeholders of a project are involved in planning for the evaluation and reviewing monitoring and evaluation data as they are being compiled. Furthermore, for the work of monitoring and evaluation to become useful, then it should be done fairly in its examination and recording of strengths and weakness of the project being monitored and evaluated, so that strengths can be built upon and problems addressed. Those involve in the monitoring and evaluation activities should make certain that the complete set of the findings along with relatable limitation are made accessible to the audience affected by the monitoring and evaluation, and any other expressed permissible privileges to receive the results. The managers to the project, donors, participants and the citizens need to have a fairly accomplished wealth of information, so that each of them essentially have the opportunity to articulate and present their needs, interests and expectations related to the project. For instance, the fair work of monitoring and evaluation aids the manager of projects to make sound management decisions to promote and made effective a more efficient allocation of resources and so, the participants can indulge in putting in place related corrective measures through implementation performance. As highlighted in the United Nation Population Fund (2001; p3), Ã¢â¬Å"The work gives the stakeholders a sense of ownership over monitoring and evaluation results, thus promoting their use to improve decision making, and so increases the understanding of stakeholders of their own project strategy and processes, what works, does not work and why. Ã¢â¬ The donors to the project needs accountability on the uses of funds they lend and likewise the population will expect the work to be fair as they are engaged with the growing interest that their situation seeks to change from benefits of the project outcomes. Finally, the collection of data to be carried out accurately and that reporting should be undertaken truthfully. The aim should be to identify the minimum amount of new information needed to meet the monitoring and evaluation needs. For all intents and purposes, the considerations of cost, time, feasibility and useful means must need to be very carefully selective in what was collected. The first consideration in any data collection process is to identify existing data and assess its quality. There may be existing monitoring and evaluation documentation or there may be data generated through existing reporting or budget control systems that can be adopted for the new monitoring and evaluation purposes. For example, if a project has to make regular accounting reports to the government or declare all purchases to a head office, this sort of data that you should first use. According to Wobiro, A. (2002; p32) Ã¢â¬Å"The collection of new data and the setting up of new monitoring and evaluation activities should only take place if existing processes cannot answer the questions that have been raisedÃ¢â¬ . There is always existed a danger of creating masses of needless data that leads stakeholders to say Ã¢â¬Å"so whatÃ¢â¬ . It is the occupations of those involve in monitoring and evaluation to ensure the data are collected accurately and reporting is done truthfully. Monitoring and evaluation activities usually engage mutually quantitative and qualitative data and most collection method involve some aspect of both. For example, you may decide to do a survey, a typical qualitative method to get peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion about the outcome of a project. But to do this survey, you must make decisions about the outcome of how you choose those people and when you finish the survey you must analyse it to allow you to describe what the majority and minority opinions were. These actions require you to apply quantitative method of data collection. Additionally, the reporting on the work of monitoring and evaluation should be undertaken truthfully in ensuring to get the message across to the right people. The project managers, donors, participants and citizens will be eager enough that reporting have been undertaken truthfully, so that any necessary adjustments can be done through the implementation progress. Undertaking the finest monitoring and evaluation course of action can be done, but if you cannot put in order a well-constructed, well-presented and convincing report then all the work will be nothing. It is vitally necessary to disseminate and communicate the results to key stakeholders and other audiences as soon as possible and in forms that are easy to understand and use. As stated in the United Nation Population Fund (2001; p95) The results should be distributed to those with a direct interest in the project, particularly individuals with duty for building important decision about the project and to other potentially concerned people. Adding on to the dissemination of final report, it is useful to organise conventions, workshops and conversation groups with various stakeholders, using a variety of methods such as visual displays and sounded presentations to communicate results and to help users assimilate and interpret information. For example the monitoring and evaluation staff can prepare information on the most important findings and describe what effect they will have on the project implementation, development and expansion. Monitoring and evaluation must provide usable information. It must enable project directors, for example, to guide and shape their projects towards the greatest effectiveness. The most significant features of an effective evaluation is that it does make available usable information , information that project staff and other stakeholders can make use of directly to make decisions about the project. To conclude, the usefulness of monitoring and evaluation to the project managers, donors, participants and the citizens will be reflected upon the honest, objective, fair, accurate data collection and the truthful undertaking of reporting of information relevant to project. The work of monitoring and evaluation should be honest to ensure honesty and integrity in having respect to the safekeeping, dignity and self-worth of respondents to surveys, the project participants, citizens and other stakeholders they interconnect with. It should also to be undertaken objectively in essence that it provides worthwhile responses to managers, donors, participants and the citizens as it informs decisions on operations or activities that are related to ongoing or future project intervention. Moreover, the work of monitoring and evaluation must be carried out fairly in its examination and recording of strengths and weakness of the project being monitored and evaluated, so that strengths can be built upon and problems addressed. Those involve in the monitoring and evaluation activities should make certain that the complete set of the findings along with relatable limitation are made accessible to the audience affected by the monitoring and evaluation, and any other expressed permissible privileges to receive the results. And so, the collection of data to be carried out accurately and that reporting should be undertaken truthfully. The aim should be to identify the minimum amount of new information needed to meet the monitoring and evaluation needs. For all intents and purposes, the considerations of cost, time, feasibility and useful means must need to be very carefully selective in what was collected.
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Critical accounting theory Essay Outline1 Introduction2 Philosophic grounds3 Practical grounds4 Example theories5 Theory 1: Positive accounting theory6 Theory 2. Critical accounting theory7 Mentions Introduction There are several grounds there is no 1 universally accepted theory of accounting. The grounds are of two kinds. The first is philosophical. The 2nd is practical. This essay discusses each of these. It so provides illustrations from accounting theory. Philosophic grounds The statement There is no universally accepted accounting theory is true by definition. Scientific apprehension of the term theory denies that any theory can be universally accepted. Harmonizing to Popper ( e.g. , 2002a, 2002b ) , theories are speculations that are put to the trial. If they are refuted by the trial, they are either rejected or refined. If they are non refuted, they remain theories ( non facts ) . They are so set to farther trials, and are farther refined. In order for this to continue, there must be rival theories. In this manner, theories compete in a procedure of Darwinian choice. The theories neer get to the truth , but they get increasingly closer. This is the first ground there is no universally accepted theory of accounting. If there were a universally recognized theory of accounting, it would nt be a theory. It would be something else. Notice that, harmonizing to Popper, no theory of all time arrives at certain cognition. The best any theory can make is restrict ignorance. Furthermore, if scientists were to detect a true theory , there would be no manner they could cognize it was true, so at that place would still be viing theories. This last point demands amplification. G A ; ouml ; del s rawness theorems ( see, e.g. , Hofstadter, 1979 ) demonstrate that, in any system of logic rich plenty to incorporate formal arithmetic there exists an infinite figure of statements that are true but that are impossible, in rule, for the system to cognize to be true. This means, in practical footings, that in any complex system-for illustration, an economic system-there exist solutions to jobs that are known by the system, but are non known by any person within it. This is appreciated by taking economic experts ( e.g. , Hayek, 1979 ) . Further, given that there exist normally boundlessly more incorrect solutions to jobs than right solutions to jobs, any effort to work out such jobs by diktat is boundlessly more likely to take to failure than to success. As respects economic sciences, this led Hayek ( 1944 ) to his bridal of the free market. As respects theory in scientific discipline, it means that any effort to enforce a i ndividual theory on anything is likely to take to a earnestly incorrect theory. This is another ground for believing there can be no universally accepted theory of accounting. Any universally accepted theory could merely be universally accepted if it were imposed by diktat, and, if it were imposed by diktat, it would of necessity most likely be incorrect. Therefore it would give rise to a rival theory. Related to this, Feyerabend ( 1996 ) argues that there is no such thing as a individual scientific method, and that any effort to enforce one is counter-productive. Feyerabend s doctrine of scientific discipline is summarised as anything goes . This, provides another ground for there being no individual theory of accounting. If there can be no universally accepted method, there can be no universally accepted theory. There are two popular positions of scientific discipline that are in struggle with Popper s position: positivism and postmodernism. Positivism is the doctrine, associated with Ayer ( 1946 ) that says that the lone meaningful statements are those that are true by logic and those that may be verified by observation. This is the confirmation rule. The first job with the confirmation rule is that it is neither a truth of logic nor an through empirical observation verifiable fact, hence by its ain footings it is nonmeaningful. The 2nd job is that in implies science returns inductively. But inductive logic ( pulling general decisions from specific cases ) is flawed: a million observations of white swans, for illustration, does non show that all swans are white ( so, they are nt: some swans are black ) . Postmodernism is the doctrine that world is socially constructed. So what is existent to one individual may be unreal to another. At a fiddling degree, this is true, for different people see the same things in different ways. It is besides true that, historically, scientific discipline progressed in some cases by alterations in universe position, or paradigm ( Kuhn, 1996 ) . However, this is a inquiry more of the sociology of scientific discipline, non of ontology. And taken literally postmodernism is absurd. It leads to the decision that there is no such thing as world. Core Business Strategy Of Thomas Cook Commerce EssayBut the impression of H. economicus is problematic-some people are stupid, some are selfless, and so on ( Lunn, cited in Clark, 2008 ) , The EMH is besides combative. Some economic experts accept it, others do nt. The EMH is besides obscure. If the market is efficient, the EMH does nt state how long it takes to make a determination Besides, if the EMH were true, arbitrage would be impossible. The best 1 can state about the premises is that they provide an estimate of world. How good an estimate it is, cipher knows. This is another ground there is no universally accepted theory of accounting. Some people think the premises provide a good estimate ; some people think they provide a bad one. Fama and French ( 2004 ) province that markets can be inefficient and investors can be ill-informed and irrational, Merely as proprietors, authoritiess, and workers have vested involvements, so have Watts and Zimmerman. In their instance, they are interested in advancing positive accounting theory. So, in this respect, the theory has a normative facet. It concerns how accountancy research workers should pattern their trade. If all research workers follow Watts and Zimmerman s diktats, Watts and Zimmerman will go rich. Naturally, all accounting research workers want to be in Watts and Zimmerman s place, but the lone manner for them to make so is to develop a rival theory. This is another ground there is no universally accepted accounting theory. Theory 2. Critical accounting theory Critical accounting theory is nt truly a theory. It s more a manner of unfavorable judgment. It aims, non merely to change accounting pattern, but to alter society ( Gaffikin, 2008 ) . It is political. Therefore, for illustration, Laughlin ( cited in Davis, 2008 ) provinces: A critical apprehension of the function of accounting procedures and patterns and the accounting profession in the operation of society and administrations with an purpose to utilize that understanding to prosecute ( where appropriate ) in altering these procedures, patterns and the profession. In this, critical accounting theory is postmodernist. Postmodernists point to the legion defects in positive accounting theory. They highlight the failings in the constructs of H. economicus and the EMH. They point out that Watts and Zimmerman use rhetorical devices to set the positions across. They argue that the methodological analysis and mensurating instruments of rationalist theories are rough, and so on. Occasionally, they make ( or repetition ) good points ( e.g. , the EMH is wrong ) ( e.g. , Mouck, 1992 ) . As indicated, postmodernists deny the being of nonsubjective world. In making so, they deny the possibility of finding the truth, or worth, of any statement. Therefore they deny the truth, or worth, of postmodernism. This is the job with postmodernism. If world is socially constructed, so there can non be a universally recognized theory, for socially constructed world differs harmonizing to who is making the constructing. A true theory to one postmodernist is a false theory to all others. That is why there is no universally accepted theory of accounting. Mentions Ayer, A.J. ( 1946 ) . Language, truth and logic. ( 2nd ed. ) . London: Gollancz. Clark, T. ( 2008, November 1 ) . Market lunacy. The Guardian. Davis, D. ( 2008 ) . Critical accounting theory. Lecture 9. Lecture notes. Bangor Business School. Feyerabend, P. ( 1996 ) . Against method: Outline of an anarchistic theory of cognition. San Francisco, CA: Analytic Psychology Club of San Francisco, Fama, E.F. and French, A.R. ( 2004 ) . The CAPM: Theory and Evidence. On line: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.econ.sdu.edu.cn/jrtzx/uploadfile/pdf/Assetpricing/04.pdf Gaffikin, M. ( 2008 ) . Accounting theory: Research, ordinance and accounting pattern. Gallic Forest, Australia: Pearson Education. Hayek, F. A. ( 1979 ) . Unemployment and pecuniary policy. San Francisco: Cato Institute. Hayek, F. A. ( 1944 ) . The route to serfdom. London: George Routledge Hofstadter, D. ( 1979 ) . G? del, Esther, Bach: An ageless aureate plait. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Kuhn, T. ( 1996 ) . The construction of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Mouck, T. ( 1992 ) . The rhetoric of scientific discipline and the rhetoric of rebellion in the narrative of positive accounting theory. Accounting Auditing, and Accountability, 5 ( 4 ) : 35-56. Popper, K. ( 2002a ) . Unended pursuit. An rational life. London: Routledge. Popper, K. ( 2002b ) . Speculations and defenses. London: Routledge. Watts, R.L. And Zimmerman, J.L. ( 1978 ) . Towards a positive theory of the finding of accounting criterions. Accounting Review, 53: 112-132.